Fish form and function: Other Modifications. Ampullary receptors are sense organs made of jelly-filled pores that detect electricity. This is the control center of the fish, where both automatic functions, such as respiration, and higher behaviors occur. The low density of the gas bladder helps the fish float (Fig 4.56). It is the primary appendage used for locomotion in many fishes. 4.21 A). • Most fish make such movements with their bodies to swim. Compare-Contrast-Connect: Marine Mammal Decline and Conservation, Further Investigation: Mammals Energy Acquisition, Question Set: Growth, Development and Reproduction, Further Investigations: Growth, Development and Reproduction, Further Investigations: Definition of Matter, Practices of Science: Interpreting Safety Information, Practices of Science: False Positives and False Negatives, Further Investigations: Properties of Matter, Weird Science: John Dalton, Atomic Theory and Color Blindness, Further Investigations: Composing and Decomposing Matter, Weird Science: Types of Salts in Seawater, Traditional Ways of Knowing: Salt Harvesting, Weird Science: Pure Water and Water Mixtures, Compare-Contrast-Connect: The History of Mendeleev's Table, Further Investigations: The Nature and Organization of Elements, Question Set: Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds, Further Investigations: Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds, Practices of Science: “Parts per” Notation, Weird Science: Compare Your Sense of Smell to a Shark’s Sense of Smell, Further Investigations: Elemental Abundance, Question Set: Using The Periodic Table to Predict Ion Formation, Weird Science: Salt Fortification and Additives, Compare-Contrast-Connect: The Role of Salt in Human History, Compare-Contrast-Connect: Chemical Structures—Visualizing the Invisible, Question Set: Comparing Ionic and Covalent Compounds, Further Investigations: Ionic and Covalent Compounds, Types of Covalent Bonds: Polar and Nonpolar, Further Investigations: Polar and Nonpolar. This sliding action of the mouth can help the fish create a vacuum and quickly suck in a big mouthful of water, which hopefully also includes prey! The tuberous type of receptor is usually deeper in the skin than ampullae. Like human limbs, fins provide fish with the ability to balance, steer, propel, and protect itself. A dog snapper (Neomaenis jocu) with preoperculum, operculum, and operculum spine labeled. Further Investigations: What is an Invertebrate? As it passes through each tissue and organ, some of the blood plasma passes through capillaries and flows around the cells. Countershading helps to camouflage fishes by matching the dark, deep water when viewed from above and matching the light, surface water, when viewed from below (Fig. The sense of smell is well developed in some fishes. Information on all the main body parts of a fish and what the fish uses them for. The brain is the regulating centre for all the receptors. Tendons are strong connective tissues that attach muscle to bone. The spine is used in defense. Fins are either single, along the centerline of the fish such as the dorsal fin, anal fin, and tail fin; or paired, like the pectoral fins and pelvic fins. Swimming begins when the muscles on one side of the body contract, pulling the caudal fin toward that side. However, both the pectoral and pelvic fins can also be highly specialized like those of the flying fish (Fig. These fish have a very hydrodynamic body supported by a cartilaginous skeleton that despite being less resistant than bone, is enough strong to sustain them. The oldest known gyotaku print, made in 1862, is owned by the Homma Museum in Sakata, Japan. 4.53. 4.9). • The smooth muscles are responsible for operating such internal organs as the stomach and intestines. The retina is a light-sensitive membrane rich in nerves that connect to the optic lobes of the brain by optic nerves. These hair cells move in response to motion near the fish. These pores are situated on a small papilla, or bump, just behind the anus (Fig. Paired fins are most commonly used for maneuvering, like the oars on a rowboat. 4.51. In fact, “appendages, when present, as fins” is part of one of the scientific definitions of a fish. This action is called buccal pumping and is named for the cheek muscles that pull water into the mouth and over the gills. Carbon dioxide and waste products move from the cells into the plasma. During the first stage of pumping, both opercula close, and the mouth opens. Some fishes also use other organs to aid in hearing. The same gill filaments allow dissolved oxygen from the water to pass into the blood, which then carries it throughout the body. Table 4.14. Blood that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide is pumped to the gills, where it releases carbon dioxide and picks up more oxygen through capillaries in the gill filaments. The tuberous receptors are most sensitive to the electric organ discharge of the fish itself, which is important for object detection. 4.47). (A) A semicircle angelfish (Pomacanthus semicirculatus) with bright blue highlight color on the preoperculum, preoperculum spine, and operculum (B) A dog snapper (Neomaenis jocu) with preoperculum, operculum, and operculum spine labeled. However, some fishes reproduce internally. Oxygen and nutrient molecules move from the plasma into the cells. Brain. In this episode, we're in Guam looking at the bones in fish ears to determine their age. The male organs, which produce milt for fertilizing the eggs, are much smaller and white but found in the same general location. • Glandular tissue, in the inner lining of the stomach, secretes digestive chemicals (enzymes). (A) Sardines swim by contracting their tail muscles (B) A drawing contrasting a typical fish swimming movement with the movement of a typical human swimming with dive fins. This method can produce an accurate image of a fish (Fig. Blood carries waste products and excess salts to the gill filaments. Red color, for example, fades out very fast with increasing depth. The lymph ducts return this liquid (called lymph) to the veins. The brain, stomach, liver, and kidneys are same as in man for the fish and perform the same function. The gill filaments are soft with lots of blood vessels to absorb oxygen from the water. The shape, size, and structure of body parts permit different fishes to live in different environments or in different parts of the same environment. Compare-Contrast-Connect: Water Experiments in Space, Compare-Contrast-Connect: Capillarity, Transpiration, and Wicking, Activity: Comparison of Water With Other Liquids, Compare-Contrast-Connect: Dilution of Pollution and Vital Gases, Question Set: Comparison of Liquids and Compounds, Further Investigations: Comparison of Liquids and Compounds, Introduction to Energy and the Water Cycle, Compare-Contrast-Connect: Celsius Versus Fahrenheit, Further Investigations: Salinity and Ice Formation, Weird Science: Pressure and Boiling Point, Further Investigations: Heating and Cooling Water, Question Set: Condensation and Precipitation, Compare-Contrast-Connect: Water Needs and Water Use, Compare-Contrast-Connect: Sea Surface Salinity, Further Investigations: Climate Comparisons, Atmospheric Chemistry and Air to Sea Exchange, Compare-Contrast-Connect: Carbon Monoxide Verses Carbon Dioxide, Introduction to Ocean Literacy Principles (OLP), OLP 1: The Earth has one big ocean with many features, OLP 2: The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features of the Earth, OLP 3: The ocean is a major influence on weather and climate, OLP 5: The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems, OLP 6: The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected, Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking, Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions, Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information, DCI in Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science, Physical Science Performance Expectations, PS2: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions, PS4: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer, LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes, LS2: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics, LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits, LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity, Earth and Space Sciences Performance Expectations, Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science Performance Expectations, ETS2: Links among engineering, technology, science, and society, Lowering frictional resistance in fast swimmers, Depressiform (broad shape and flat top to bottom), Lying on or below the surface of the sand, Compressiform (tall, thin shape and flat side to side), Vertically flattened shape that is somewhat depressiform (flat top to bottom), Bottom heavy for sitting on the bottom, not casting a shadow, Fusiform (bullet, or torpedo shape), which is also sometimes called perch like, Elongated shape that is somewhat anguiliform (eel shape), Slow swimming, accelerating, and maneuvering, Rapid swimming, somewhat sustained with bursts of speed, Slow or rapid swimming with bursts of speed, Tiny eyes, head length approximately six times longer than eye width, Large eyes, head length approximately three times longer than eye width, Receiving low intensity light or spotting predators, Average eyes head length three to five times longer than eye width, Receiving low light from above often in deep water, Probing for food in sand. 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